- Force could mean that a person is confined to a space, starved, experiences rape, beatings, or other types of violence.
- Fraud is a trick. This could be that the person was deceived about a job offer or lured into a romantic relationship. After accepting, the victim finds that what was promised was untrue.
- Coercion is a threat. For example, the trafficker could threaten to report the victim to immigration authorities or could threaten them with violence.
Traffickers are experts in manipulation and in the use of power and control. They target people’s vulnerabilities in order to exploit them. This “Power and Control Wheel” has been adapted for human trafficking situations. It describes different methods that traffickers use to subjugate their victims.
*If a minor is involved in commercial sex, they are automatically considered by law a victim of trafficking and do not need to prove force, fraud, or coercion.